However, culture determines the type of memory strategy we develop. Vygotsky, therefore, sees cognitive functions, even those carried out alone, as affected by the beliefs, values, and tools of intellectual adaptation of the culture in which a person develops and therefore socio-culturally determined.
Biography[ edit ] Lev Vygotsky was born Lee vygotskys theory of learning essay the Vygodskii family in the town of OrshaBelarus then belonging to Russian Empire into a non-religious middle-class family of Russian Jewish extraction.
His father Simkha Vygodskii was a banker. Young Lev Vygodskii was raised in the city of Gomelwhere he was homeschooled until and then obtained formal degree with distinction in a private Jewish Gimnasium, which allowed him entrance to a university.
He had interest in humanities and social sciences, but at the insistence of his parents he applied to the medical school in Moscow University. During the first semester of study he transferred to the law school.
There he studied law and, in parallel, he attended lectures at fully official, but privately funded and non degree granting Shaniavskii Moscow City People's University ". In contrast, during this period he was highly critical of the ideas of both socialism and Zionismand proposed the solution of the "Jewish question" by return to the traditional Jewish Orthodoxy.
Lev Vygodskii never completed his formal studies at the Imperial Moscow University and, thus, he never obtained a university degree: Following these events, he left Moscow and eventually returned to Gomel, where he lived after the October Socialist Revolution of occurred.
There is virtually no information about his life during the years in Gomel that administratively belonged to the Ukrainian State at the time after the German occupation during the WWIuntil the Bolsheviks captured the town in Since then he was an active participant of major social transformation under the Bolshevik Communist rule and a fairly prominent representative of the Bolshevik government in Gomel from to It was under this pen-name that the fame subsequently came to him.
His daughters subsequently born in and and other relatives, though, preserved their original family name 'Vygodskii'.
The traditional English spelling of his last name nowadays is 'Vygotsky'. Soon thereafter, Vygotsky received an invitation to become a research fellow at the Psychological Institute in Moscow. Vygotsky moved to Moscow with his new wife, Roza Smekhova.
He began his career at the Psychological Institute as a "staff scientist, second class". In summer he made his first and only trip abroad to a London congress on the education of the deaf. After his release from hospital Vygotsky did theoretical and methodological work on the crisis in psychology, but never finished the draft of the manuscript and interrupted his work on it around mid The manuscript was published later with notable editorial interventions and distortions in and presented by the editors as one of the most important Vygotsky's works.
However, he also harshly criticized those of his colleagues who attempted to build a " Marxist Psychology" as an alternative to the naturalist and philosophical schools.
He argued that if one wanted to build a truly Marxist Psychology, there were no shortcuts to be found by merely looking for applicable quotes in the writings of Marx. Rather one should look for a methodology that was in accordance with the Marxian spirit.
During this period he gathered a group of collaborators including Alexander LuriaBoris Varshava, Alexei LeontievLeonid Zankovand several others. Vygotsky guided his students in researching this phenomenon from three different perspectives: The instrumental approach, which tried to understand the ways humans use objects as mediation aids in memory and reasoning A developmental approach, focused on how children acquire higher cognitive functions during development A culture-historical approach, studying how social and cultural patterns of interaction shape forms of mediation and developmental trajectories  In the early s Vygotsky experienced deep crisis, personal and theoretical, and after a period of massive self-criticism made an attempt at a radical revision of his theory.
The work of the representatives of the Gestalt psychology and other holistic scholars was instrumental in this theoretical shift. In Vygotsky was aiming at establishing a psychological theory of consciousness, but because of his death this theory remained only in a very sketchy and unfinished form.
Life and scientific legacy[ edit ] Vygotsky was a pioneering psychologist and his major works span six separate volumes, written over roughly ten years, from Psychology of Art to Thought and Language [or Thinking and Speech] Vygotsky's interests in the fields of developmental psychologychild developmentand education were extremely diverse.
His philosophical framework includes interpretations of the cognitive role of mediation tools, as well as the re-interpretation of well-known concepts in psychology such as internalization of knowledge. Vygotsky introduced the notion of zone of proximal developmenta metaphor capable of describing the potential of human cognitive development.
His work covered topics such as the origin and the psychology of artdevelopment of higher mental functionsphilosophy of science and the methodology of psychological researchthe relation between learning and human developmentconcept formation, interrelation between language and thought development, play as a psychological phenomenon, learning disabilitiesand abnormal human development aka defectology.Essay on Lee Vygotsky's Theory of Learning - Lev Vygotsky developed his theory of learning in the ’s but it was not until the late ’s that his ideas about learning became popular and were used to contribute to “Constructivism” as a method of teaching.
(Krause [et al.] p.
p81). Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory is the work of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky () . Vygotsky’s work was largely unkown to the West until it was published in Vygotsky’s work was largely unkown to the West until it was published in Unlike Piaget's notion that childrens' development must necessarily precede their learning, Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function" (, p.
90). Essay Sociocultural Theory: Lev Vygotsky Words | 5 Pages. Lev Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist, born November 17, , who had a wide range of interests that included the cognitive and language development of children.
Educational Theory - Lee Vygotsky's Theory of Learning. Major Challenges to Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Essay - What are the major challenges to Piaget's theory of cognitive development and what aspects still have value. Lev Vygotsky's, cultural-historical theory of cognitive development is focused on the role of culture in the development of higher mental functions, such as speech and reasoning in children.